Quantum Relational Hoare Logic


We present a logic for reasoning about pairs of interactive quantum programs – quantum relational Hoare logic (qRHL). This logic follows the spirit of probabilistic relational Hoare logic (Barthe et al. 2009) and allows us to formulate how the outputs of two quantum programs relate given the relationship of their inputs. Probabilistic RHL was used extensively for computer-verified security proofs of classical cryptographic protocols. Since pRHL is not suitable for analyzing quantum cryptography, we present qRHL as a replacement, suitable for the security analysis of post-quantum cryptography and quantum protocols. The design of qRHL poses some challenges unique to the quantum setting, e.g., the definition of equality on quantum registers. Finally, we implemented a tool for verifying proofs in qRHL and developed several example security proofs in it.

Proceedings of the ACM on Programming Languages

POPL ‘19. See extended version on arXiv.